Using Rust in Mercurial

This page describes the plan and status for leveraging the Rust programming language in Mercurial.

Why use Rust?

Today, Mercurial is a Python application. It uses Python C extensions in various places to achieve better performance.

There are many advantages to being a Python application. But, there are significant disadvantages.

Performance is a significant pain point with Python. There are multiple facets to the performance problem:

It takes several dozen milliseconds to start a Python interpreter and load the Mercurial Python modules. If you have many extensions loaded, it could take well over 100ms just to effectively get to a Mercurial command's main function. Reports of over 250ms are known. While the command itself may complete in mere milliseconds, Python overhead has already made hg seem non-instantaneous to end-users.

A few years ago, we measured that CPython interpreter startup overhead amounted to 10-18% of the run time of Mercurial's test harness. 100ms may not sound like a lot. But it is enough to give the perception that Mercurial is slower than tools like Git (which can run commands in under 10ms).

There are also situations like querying hg for shell prompts that require near-instantaneous execution.

Mercurial is also heavily scripted by tools like IDEs. We want these tools to provide results near instantaneously. If people are waiting over 100ms for results from hg, it makes these other tools feel sluggish.

There are workarounds for startup overhead problems: the CommandServer (start a persistent process and issue multiple commands to it) and CHg (a C binary that speaks with a Mercurial command server and enables chg commands to execute without Python startup overhead). chg's very existence is because we need hg to be a native binary in order to avoid Python startup overhead. If hg weren't a Python script, we wouldn't need chg to be a separate program.

Python is also substantially slower than native code. PyPy can deliver substantially better performance than CPython. And some workloads with PyPy might even be faster than native code due to JIT. But overall, Python is slower than native code.

But even with PyPy's magical performance, we still have the GIL. Python doesn't allow you to execute CPU-bound Python code on multiple threads. If you are CPU bound, you need to offload that work to an extension (which releases the GIL when it executes hot code) or you spawn multiple processes. Since Mercurial needs to run on Windows (where new process overhead is ~10x worse than POSIX and is a platform optimized for spawning threads - not processes), many of the potential speedups we can realize via concurrency are offset on Windows by new process overhead and Python startup overhead. We need thread-level concurrency on Windows to help with shorter-lived CPU-bound workloads. This includes things like revlog reading (which happens on nearly every Mercurial operation).

In addition to performance concerns, Python is also hindering us because it is a dynamic programming language. Mercurial is a large project by Python standards. Large projects are harder to maintain. Using a statically typed programming language that finds bugs at compile time will enable us to make wide-sweeping changes more fearlessly. This will improve Mercurial's development velocity.

Today, when performance is an issue, Mercurial developers currently turn to C. But we treat C as a measure of last resort because it is just too brittle. It is too easy to introduce security vulnerabilities, memory leaks, etc. On top of vanilla C, the Python C API is somewhat complicated. It takes significantly longer to develop C components because the barrier to writing bug-free C is much higher.

Furthermore, Mercurial needs to run on multiple platforms, including Windows. The nice things we want to do in native code are complicated to implement in C because cross-platform C is hard. The standard library is inadequate compared to modern languages. While modern versions of C++ are nice, we still support Python 2.7 and thus need to build with MSVC 2008 on Windows. It doesn't have any of the nice features that modern versions of C++ have. Things like introducing a thread pool in our current C code would be hard. But with Rust, that support is in the standard library and "just works." Having Rust's standard library is a pretty compelling advantage over C/C++ for any project, not just Mercurial.

For Mercurial, Rust is all around a better C. It is much safer, about the same speed, and has a usable standard library and modules system for easily pulling in 3rd party code.

Desired End State

Frequently Asked Questions

Will Rust be required to use Mercurial?

Our intention is to not make Rust a requirement to use Mercurial. So, no. However...

Will there be features only implemented in Rust that therefore require Rust?

Most likely.

There are features today that require C. chg is one of them. zstandard support is kind of another (we support CFFI bindings to zstandard but you need a working C compiler to build those bindings). So if the question is do I need a working C compiler to use a feature, you can substitute C compiler for Rust compiler and have an answer.

There is also the possibility that we'll implement a new high-level feature in Rust and not have a pure Python implementation. These would be for optional features. For example, a new local storage format may be implemented in Rust. Clients not supporting running Rust code would be unable to use that storage format. So a missing feature would be better performance from the new storage format. It is also possible that we tie additional features to that. e.g. partial clones require the new storage format.

There will likely be pressure for pure Python implementations for high-level Mercurial features. So we don't anticipate too many high-level and stable features launching that would exclude pure Python clients.

Current Status

(last updated October 14, 2018)

Priorities for Oxidation

All existing C code is a priority for oxidation because we don't like maintaining C code for safety and compatibility reasons. Existing C code includes:

In addition, the following would be good candidates for oxidation:


CRT Mismatch on Windows

Mercurial still uses Python 2.7. Python 2.7 is officially compiled with MSVC 2008 and links against vcruntime90.dll. Rust and its standard library don't support MSVC 2008. They are likely linked with something newer, like MSVC 2015 or 2017.

If we want compatibility with other binary Python extensions, we need to use a Python built with MSVC 2008 and linked against msvcr90.dll.

So, our options are:

  1. Build a custom Python 2.7 distribution with modern MSVC and drop support for 3rd party binary Python 2.7 extensions.
  2. Switch Mercurial to Python 3 and build Rust code with same toolchain as Python we target.
  3. Mix the CRTs.

#1 significantly undermines Mercurial's extensibility. Plus, Python 2.7 built for !MSVC 2008 isn't officially supported.

#2 is in progress. However, the timeline for officially supporting Python 3 to the point where we can transition the official distribution for it is likely too far out (2H 2018) and would hinder Rust adoption efforts.

That leaves mixing the CRTs. This would work by having the Rust components statically link a modern CRT while having Python dynamically load msvcr90.dll.

Mixing CRTs is dangerous because if you attempt to perform a multipart operation with multiple CRTs, things could blow up. e.g. if you malloc() in CRT A and free() in CRT B. Or attempt to operate on FILE instances across CRTs. More info at See also for a full list of CRT functions.

Fortunately, our exposure to the multiple CRT problem is significantly reduced because:

We would have to keep a close eye out for CRT objects spanning multiple CRTs. We can mitigate exposure for bad patterns by establishing static analysis rules on source code. We can also examine the produced Rust binaries for symbol references and raise warnings when unwanted CRT functions are used by Rust code.

All that being said, CRT mismatch is mostly a problem with Python 2.7. With Python 3.5+ support for Mercurial, the bulk of this problem may "just go away" if we don't support Rust with Python 2.7 (on Windows).

Rust Support

Mercurial relies on other entities (like Linux distros) to package and distribute Mercurial. This means we have to consider their support for packaging programs that use Rust or else we risk losing packagers. This means we need to consider:

For official Mercurial distributions, these considerations don't exist, as we'll be giving a binary to end-users. So this topic is all about our relationship with downstream packagers.


Stretch (Debian 9): Rust 1.24 ( Buster (Debian 10): Rust 1.28 (


RHEL 7 / CentOS 7: Rust 1.28 (via EPEL)


Tracks Rust stable channel. Rust package maintainer prefers us to maintain support with stable-1.


Rust support on amd64 and i386. arm64 support in the works.

6 month cycle for the -stable release.

Rust usage in Mercurial should support Rust minus 12 months. 6 months (+leeway) for Rust maintainer to update Rust. Plus 6 months for the Mercurial cycle.

Concerns expressed over backports of Mercurial security patches. Fear that Rust code will be harder to backport than Python code.

If no non-Rust fallback, will lose Mercurial package on a lot of platforms. List of supported platforms at

Packaging Overhaul Needed

If hg becomes a Rust binary and we want Mercurial to be a self-contained application, we'll need to overhaul our packaging mechanisms on all operating systems.

Distributing Python

Mercurial would need to distribute a copy of Python.

Python insists that embedded Python load a pythonXX shared library. e.g. python27.dll or

We would also need to distribute a copy of the Python standard library (.py, .pyc, etc files). These could be distributed in flat form (hundreds of .py files) or in a zip file. (Python supports importing modules from zip files.) If we wanted to get creative, we could invent our own archive format / module loading mechanism (but this feels like unnecessary work).

We can't prune the Python standard library of unused modules because Mercurial extensions may make use of any feature in the standard library. So we'll be distributing the entire Python standard library.

But the distribution of Python is not required: various packagers (like operating systems) would want Mercurial to use a Python provided to it. So our Rust hg needs to support loading a bundled Python and a Python provided to it. This can likely be controlled with build-time flags.


Mercurial could conceptually be distributed as a .zip file. That archive would contain pre-built hg.exe, pythonXX.dll, any other shared library dependencies, a copy of the Python standard library, Mercurial Python files, and any support files.

Because zip files aren't user friendly, we'd likely provide a standalone .exe or .msi installer (like we do today).


We could provide a self-contained archive file containing hg binary,, and any other dependencies. We could also provide rpm, deb, etc packages for popular distributions. These would be self-contained and not dependent any many (any?) other packages. Our biggest concern here is libc compatibility. That can be solved by static linking, compiling against a sufficiently old (and compatible) libc, or providing distro-specific packages.

Of course, many distros will want to provide their own Mercurial package. And they will likely want Mercurial to make use of the system Python. We can and must support this.

An issue with a self-contained distribution is loading of shared libraries. Not all operating systems and loaders may support loading of binary-relative shared libraries. We may need to hack something together that uses dlopen() to explicitly specify which, etc to load.


This is very similar to Linux. We may support the native application / installer mechanism to make things more user friendly. We don't have good support for this today. So it is likely most users will rely on Homebrew or MacPorts for installation.

BSDs / Solaris / Etc

Basically the same strategy as Linux.

PyPI / pip

We support installing Mercurial via pip today. We upload a source distribution to PyPI and anyone can pip install Mercurial to install Mercurial in their Python environment. On Windows (where users can't easily compile binary Python extensions), we provide Python wheels with pre-built Mercurial binaries.

The future of pip install Mercurial with an oxidized Mercurial is less clear.

pip is tailored towards Python applications. If Mercurial is a Rust application and Python is an implementation detail, does it make sense to use pip and PyPI as a distribution channel?

pip install Mercurial is very convenient (at least for the people that have pip installed and can run it). It is certainly easier than downloading and running an installer. So unless we bake an upgrade facility into Mercurial itself, pip install Mercurial is the next best thing for upgrading after the system package manager (apt, yum, brew, port, etc).

pip install Mercurial goes through a well-defined mechanism to take the artifact it downloaded from PyPI to install it. This mechanism could be abused to facilitate the use of PyPI/pip for distributing a self-contained Mercurial distribution. e.g. the user would end up with a Rust binary in PYTHONHOME/bin/hg that loads a custom version of Python and is fully self-contained and isolated from the Python it was pip installed into. This would be super hacky. It may not even be allowed by PyPI's hosting terms of service? But we could certainly abuse pip install if we needed to.

Support for PyPy / non-CPython Pythons

There exist Python distributions beyond the official CPython distribution. PyPy likely being the one of the most interest to us because of its performance advantages.

The cost to supporting non-CPython Pythons when hg is a Rust binary could be very high. That would likely significantly curtail the use of the CPython API. Instead, we'd have to do interop via ctypes or cffi or provide N ways to do interop.

It's worth noting that if Mercurial is a self-contained application, we could potentially swap out CPython for PyPy. We could go as far as to unsupport CPython completely.

Rust <=> Python Interop

Rust and Python code will need to call into each other. (Although it is anticipated that the bulk of the calling will be from Python into Rust code - at least initially.)

There are many options for us here.

python27-sys and python3-sys are low-level Rust bindings to the CPython API. Mostly declarations, and kots of unsafe {} code here.

rust-cpython and PyO3 are higher-level wrappers around python27-sys and python3-sys. They are what you want to use for day-to-day Rust programming, and provide back-and-forth calls between Python and Rust code.

PyO3 is a fork of rust-cpython. It seems to be a bit nicer. But it requires Nightly Rust features (last checked on 2018-10-19, const_fn).

Milksnake uses Rust's cbindgen crate to automatically generate Python cffi bindings to Rust libraries. Essentially, you write a Rust library that exports symbols and milksnake can generate a Python binding to it. There's a lot going on. But it is definitely an interesting approach. And some of the components are useful without the rest of milksnake. e.g. the idea of using cbindgen + cffi to generate low-level Python bindings. Because Milksnake uses cffi, the approach should work with both CPython and PyPy.

We'll keep our Rust code organized in a inner, pure Rust crate with no Python bindings (hg-core), so that it can be used even in a non Python context on one hand, and one or several crates for different binding approaches (hg-direct-ffi, hg-cpython…). While the first landed effort performs direct FFI bindings, we are currently exploring using rust-cpython, occasionnally getting down to the lower-level python*-sys when needed. It seems to be possible to produce a Python Extension subpackage backed by a single shared library, possibly allowing the compiler to perform agressive optimizations. In all cases, the usage of Rust in Mercurial will be an opt-in for the time being (currently controlled by setting the HGWITHRUSTEXT environment variable in the build process)

A major reason for adopting Rust (and C before that) is performance. We know from Mercurial's C extensions that native code is often vasly undermined by a) crossing the Python<->native boundary b) excessive use of Python API from native code. For example, obsolescence marker parsing is ~100x faster in C. However, once you construct PyObject for all the parsed markers, it is only 2-4x faster.

We know that using ctypes to call from Python into native code is significantly slower than binary Python extensions. Although if the number of function calls and data being transferred across the boundary is small, this difference isn't as pronounced. Rust will enable us to write more functionality in native code (we try to avoid writing C today for maintainability and security reasons). So the performance of the Python<->native bridge will be more important over time. Therefore, it seems prudent to rule out ctypes. That leaves us with extensions or CFFI.

Running hg tests with Rust extensions

You can run the test with the rust extension using

./tests/ --rust

You can install a mercurial with the rust extension using

./ --rust install


PURE="--rust" make install

IF the environment variable HGWITHRUSTEXT=cpython is set. The rust extension will be used by default unless --no-rust.

Reconciling `hg` with Rust extensions

Initially, hg will be a minimal Rust binary that embeds a Python interpreter. It simply tells the interpreter to invoke Mercurial's main() function. In this world, other Rust functionality is likely loaded via shared libraries or Python extensions. In other words, we have multiple Rust contexts running from different binaries (an executable and a shared library). The executable handles very early process activity. The shared library handles business logic.

Over time, we'll likely want to expand the role of Rust for early process activity. For example, we'll need to implement some command line processing in Rust for chg functionality. We may also want to implement config file loading (we need to rewrite the config parser anyway to facilitate writing back config changes). And, if we could load a repo from disk and maybe even implement performance critical commands (like hg status) from pure Rust, this would likely be a massive performance win. (Although we have to consider how this will interact with extensibility.)

What this means is that we'll have multiple Rust binaries holding Mercurial state. This feels brittle. Ideally we'd have a single Rust binary. If Python needed to call into native/Rust code, it would get those symbols from the parent hg binary instead of from a shared library. It is unclear how this would work. It is obviously possible to resolve the address of a symbol in the current binary. But existing "call native code" mechanisms in Python seem to assume that symbols are coming from loaded libraries, not the current executable. This may require modifications to cffi or some custom code to generate the Python bindings to executable-local symbols.

Preserving Support for Extensions

Mercurial implemented in Python is good for extensibility because it means extensions can customize nearly every part of Mercurial - often via monkeypatching.

As we use more Rust, we no longer have the dynamic nature of Python and extensions will lose some of their power.

As more of hg is implemented in Rust before any Python is called, we could lose the ability for Python extensions to influence low-level and core operations. e.g. if we want to implement hg status such that it doesn't invoke Python and incur Python startup overhead, how do we enable extensions to still influence the behavior of hg status?

Presumably, hg will eventually implement config file loading and command line processing. So, Rust will be able to see which extensions are being loaded. Assuming hg can resolve the paths to loaded extensions, we could add a syntax to the main extensions file to declare their influence on various behavior. For example, if an extension influences behavior of hg status, its source code could contain something like: # hgext-influences: cmd-status. Rust would see this special syntax and know it needs to instantiate a Python interpreter in order to load the extension for the current hg status command. We could also imagine doing something similar for other functionality implemented in Rust, such as the core store interface.

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OxidationPlan (last edited 2022-06-25 18:04:59 by MarcosCruz)